I stumbled upon an interesting scene as I reentered Whiterun. I know I should have returned to the Jarl right away, but as I said, interesting.
These Alik'r fellows were getting kicked out of town for some reason. They said they were looking for a Redguard woman they had tracked to the city, some sort of renegade or something. I know there are Redguards here, but no one that caught my eye as being particularly shady; I said I'd let them know if I found who they were looking for.
Immediately I hear some thunder. Odd, since there were no clouds anywhere. And also odd how it sounded like a voice. The Nords around got excited, though.
And then I was stopped by some courier saying they had a message from "a friend." The note said they noticed me using a shout (how, I don't know), and that there was a great power to be had at some place. Didn't have time for that, though. Looked shady anyways.
I did eventually make it to the Jarl, and explained what had happened with the dragon, and the whole bit with the guard calling me Dragonborn just because I absorbed a dragon's soul. The Jarl was impressed about that last part, and connected it with the thunder I had heard: it was no mere thunder, but the summons of some folks called the Greybeards for the Dragonborn. The Greybeards are apparently masters of the Way of the Voice, which teaches how to use shouts or whatever (this was a bit too much to take in at once). They apparently wanted to teach me some stuff.
The Jarl points me in the direction of the home of the Greybeards, High Hrothgar, which is near the top of the tallest peak in all Tamriel, the Throat of the World.
And, as a thanks for saving his city from a dragon, he makes me a citizen of his area, with the ability to buy property, and then a Thane. Being a Thane in Whiterun is apparently more prestigious than Falkreath, for I also get a Housecarl, like Irileth, but not her - a lady named Lydia.
However, I don't have nearly enough money to buy a house, at least tonight, so Lydia stays at Dragonsreach (not having a house to carl over, or whatever it is she is supposed to do), and I go to the inn. Still only 10 septims a night, but much nicer than the accommodations in Falkreath.
Like actually having a door, and no mourning fathers either.